• 6th International Conference on Mechanical Engineering and Renewable Energy

Keynote Speakers

Title: Our option of future energy structure and economy from entropy theory

Abstract: Global warming is just around the corner, and we will have a significant disaster in weather and food supply in a few decades. To avoid this end of the world, we must start establishing society based on renewable energy as soon as possible. It should be noted that there is no available energy other than the renewable energy in 2050 to solve global warming. Even nuclear energy is not available at the time because of the lack of uranium fuel.

Simple analysis shows that the land necessary for the renewable energy is much smaller than the land for food production. Thus, the major concern is the cost and influence on the economy. Our analysis showed that money necessary for establishing society based on renewable energy is not so large and in acceptable range. Additionally, it appears to have a great possibility of economic growth, because more money is circulating in a local society.

When we focus on rich and poor, number of poor people is not decreasing, although GDP is increasing in most of the countries. This can be explained by entropy theory. The theory indicates that increasing poor people is quite natural, and special attention is necessary to make poor people involved in the circulation of money. The establishment of society based on the local renewable energy is preferable for the circulation of money among people.

The speech starts from environmental issue, explains the mechanism of rich and poor, and shows the possibility of economic growth by the establishment of renewable energy society. It also emphasizes the importance of involving citizens in the system.


Prof. Dr. Takemi Chikahisa obtained his M.S. in the University of Wisconsin-Madison in 1980 and Ph.D.in Hokkaido University Japan in 1982. He was a professor of Energy and Environmental Systems Division at Hokkaido University in Japan. He made research on transport phenomena in fuel cell, combustion control in engines, and analysis of optimal energy system in the future. He retired from Hokkaido University in 2019, and now he is a president of Hokkaido Polytechnic College. The college, which belongs to Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare, develops practical engineers available for local enterprises.

Prof. Dr. Takemi Chikahisa
President, Hokkaido Polytechnic College, Japan
& Emeritus Professor, Hokkaido University, Japan



Title: Technologies, challenges, and opportunities for producing transport fuel from waste plastics

Professor Mohammad Rasul has obtained his PhD from The University of Queensland. His expertise and experience in research include clean energy and thermodynamics. He has more than 20 years’ experience in research in clean energy, especially waste to energy (pyrolysis, gasification) and biofuel amongst others. His research has contributed to >450 publications, >11000 citations and ~$5M research grants. His current funded project is on conversion of mixed waste plastics to Australian standard diesel. He has supervised 31 Higher Degree by Research (HDR) students to completion. He was awarded Vice-Chancellor’s award for HDR supervision and good practice in learning and teaching at CQUniversity. He is a member of Engineers Australia, editor of Australian Journal of Mechanical Engineering, and engaged with professional communities and societies through various roles.



Despite comprehensive research on meeting global energy crisis and urban waste management issues, the technology for producing transport fuel from waste plastics has not been fully developed yet in the context of industrial and commercial applications. The literatures reported that the pyrolysis technologies are more effective and efficient in producing transport fuel from solid waste including waste plastics. The findings of waste plastics pyrolysis and suitability of pyrolysis oil for automobile engine application including findings of diesel engine performance and emission characteristics fuelled with plastic oil will be presented in this study.

It is to be noted that the pyrolysis of plastics waste produces up to 90% crude oil. The engine experiment with plastic pyrolysis oil showed delayed combustion, high heat release rate and high cylinder pressure. Power output and brake thermal efficiency of the engine shows similar, however exhaust gas temperature, NOx, UHC, CO and CO2 emission are significantly higher compared with conventional diesel. A better understanding of the economics of plastic pyrolysis for transport fuel production and resolving issues and challenges of the technologies for a large-scale industrial and commercial application could be recommended for future work.

Professor of Mechanical Engineering
Central Queensland University
Phone: 07 4930 9676, Mobile: 0402431669
Email: m.rasul@cqu.edu.au

Title: Challenges in aluminum welding: Comparative appraisal of friction stir spot welded and laser beam welded aluminium alloy sheets

Abstract: Aluminum has many challenges in welding, in particular fusion welding processes such as GTAW, GMAW and laser welding. Solid state welding processes, recently gain more and more interest to weld aluminum alloys for similar and dissimilar welding. Friction stir welding, friction stir spot welding, magnetic pulse welding and friction welding processes are some of these solid state processes. In this study, challenges in aluminum welding, processes that are used for joining these alloys will be reviewed. In addition, experimental studies on friction stir spot and laser welding of 2xxx series aluminum alloy will be presented in part two. The conventional non-contact laser welding of aluminum alloys offers high precision, flexibility, and low heat-input joining with a high susceptibility to porosity and solidification cracking. Modification of spot laser welding to mitigate this challenge is pertinent and the comparison of the modified spot laser joint with the new solid-state welding rave is key for advancing industrial applications. Thus, this work focuses on comparing the strength of a modified spot laser beam welding and that of the friction stir spot weld. A 10 mm diameter circular path fiber laser welding of the overlapped AA2219 Al alloy sheet was compared with a pinless friction stir spot welded counterparts fabricated with a 10 mm shoulder diameter. The laser welding process was carried out at a welding speed of 33 mm/s and laser power of 3750 W while the friction stir spot welding process was carried out at tool rotational speed, plunge depth and dwell time of 1500 rpm, 0.8 mm and 8 s respectively. The result shows that the tensile shear loads of the friction stir spot welded and fiber laser joints were about 4.1 and 5.4 kN respectively. Despite the inherent micropores in the laser weld, the fiber laser welded joint demonstrated a better loadbearing attribute. This indicates that the circular fusion length of the laser weld offers sufficient metallurgical bonding for effective loadbearing as compared to the friction stir spot welded joints.

Prof. Dr. Emel TABAN, born in 1980, received her BS, MSc and PhD in Mechanical Engineering in 2002, 2004 and 2007 respectively. She started her academic career at Kocaeli University as Research Assistant at Department of Mechanical Engineering of Kocaeli University in 2002. She has been guest researcher and exchange PhD student at the University of Ghent and Belgian Welding Institute. She conducted her postdoctoral studies as a Guest Professor at the Welding Engineering Department of the Ohio State University and Edison Welding Institute.

She has been working as Full Professor in Department of Mechanical Eng. of Kocaeli University since 2018 and is the Vice Director of the Welding Research Center. She represents Turkey as delegate member of several Technical Commissions at the International Institute of Welding.

She has over 100 publications and books on welding technologies, weldability and welding metallurgy of stainless steels, high alloyed steels and aluminium alloys using conventional and advanced welding processes. She has over 1400 citations to date and an h-index of 18 as a researcher. She serves as a member of several organizations such as Turkish Academy of Welding, Turkish Standardization Institute, National Welding Congress, panelist and reviewer of several Industrial Research projects and R&D Centers in Turkey, American Society of Metals, American Welding Society, German Welding Society, Scientific Committee Member of several Welding and Materials Congress and Symposiums.

She is the recipient of McKay-Helm award from American Welding Society for the best contribution to the advancement of knowledge of stainless steel welding, involving the use, development and testing of these materials.

She is also recipient of Prof. Dr. Baki Komsuoglu Science and Technology award, various awards from Research Council of Turkey. She is awarded over 10 times by Kocaeli University due to Excellence in research and academic activities.

In December 2020, she has been listed among the World’s top 2% Scientists in a global list compiled by prestigious Stanford University. And in March and May 2021, she has been listed among Turkey’s top 1% Scientists.


Title: Super resolution imaging by using point source constrained partial differential equation

Ultrasonic testing has long history but the resolution is governed by the Abbe limit. He recognized a fundamental diffraction limit of optics in 1873: whenever an object is imaged by a classical optical lens, features of the object smaller than the half of wave length become unrecoverable. Such fine, detailed information is lost because light emerges with these fine features as evanescent energy, which decays exponentially away from the object and is not carried by the propagating waves. Super-resolution imaging is important for many applications in ultrasonic imaging including non-destructive testing for detecting sub-wavelength defects.
Especially for the inspection of laminated materials and for detecting parallel planar flaws, the ultrasonic flaw detection test plays an important role. Nevertheless, CFRP composite material has inherent difficulties in ultrasonic testing due to its anisotropy of phase velocity. That is, the propagation velocity which is parallel to the fiber is faster than that propagating in other directions. For that reason, the time-of-flight depends on its propagating direction, such that the exact location of the wound cannot be determined by TOF or TOFD method. It is important, therefore, to establish the crack detection and imaging criterion independent of local wave numbers. I would like to discuss the computational process
in the defect imaging method based on the point source constrained partial differential equation of the A0-mode Lamb wave field, and evaluate the super-resolution imaging on the CFRP plate with.

Kenbu Teramoto received BSc., MSc., and Dr. of Engineering from the University of Tokyo, in 1983, 1985 and 1988 respectively. Since 1988, He has worked at Saga University. He became a Lecturer in 1988, became an associate professor in 1990,and has been a professor since 2007. He received SICE Measurement Division Paper Awards in 2012 and 2021. He was a director of The Society of Instrument and Control Engineers (SICE) in 2012-2014. He was a head of the division of measurement of SICE in 2010-2012. He is a member of IEEE, ASA, and SICE. His main research interests are wave field analysis, ultrasonic imaging, inverse problems and non-destructive testing.


Title:    Aerodynamics and Hydrodynamics in Sports.

Abstract : Aero/hydrodynamics plays a crucial role in speed sports (athletes, athletes’ outfits, sports balls, sports equipment, etc.). Sports balls (spherical – golf, cricket, tennis, soccer, baseball, softball, etc. and oval shape – rugby, American football, Australian football), and sports garments (swimsuits, ski jumping & alpine skiing suits, cycling skin suits, skating suits) are affected by aero/hydrodynamic behaviour of fluids. The aero/hydrodynamics dictates the flight path of a soccer, tennis, cricket, baseball or golf ball and the course of a surfboard and sailboat through water. It affects speed, motion (position and placement) and ultimately athlete’s performance. Ignoring the effect of aero/hydrodynamics, it is near impossible to be successful in any competitive speed sports. The research outcome of most sports aero/hydrodynamics research undertaken either by commercial organisations or individual sports teams/organisations is kept inhouse. Hence, scant information is available in the public domain. The RMIT University’s Sports Aerodynamics Research Group (established in 2002) has been undertaking research on aero/hydrodynamics related to some popular speed sports. This paper highlights some sports aerodynamics and hydrodynamics research undertaken at RMIT University.

Biography: Dr Firoz Alam is a Professor in the School of Engineering (Aerospace, Mechanical and Manufacturing) at RMIT University in Melbourne, Australia. He completed his PhD in vehicle aerodynamics from the same university in 2000. He received his Master’s degree (combined with Bachelors) in Aeronautical Engineering with Honours (First Class First) from Riga Civil Aviation Engineers Institute, former Soviet Republic of Latvia in 1991. Prof Alam’s research interest includes thermal fluid mechanics, aerodynamics of aircraft, road vehicle, train, building, sports, energy, engineering education curriculum design, quality assurance and accreditation.  He has over 250 publications (including scholarly books, book chapters, journal articles and peer reviewed conference papers). He is currently serving as editor in chief and editorial board member for over half a dozen international scientific journals. Prof Alam is a Fellow of the Institution of Engineers Australia, Chartered Professional Engineer (CPEng), and APEC Engineer. He is an active member of several other professional societies and associations including American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME), American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA), Society of Automotive Engineers USA & Australia, and International Society of Bionic Engineering. Prof Alam received RMIT University’s best Teacher Award in 2004.

Title: SDS – Solar Desalination Systems

Abstract: The growing scarcity of fresh water is driving the implementation of desalination on an increasingly large scale. However, the energy required to run desalination plants remains a drawback. The idea of using renewable energy sources is fundamentally attractive and many studies have been conducted in this area.
Supply of adequate quantities of fresh potable water is one of the most serious problems confronting human, especially when we know that one third of the world population are suffering from water shortage and it is expected to reach two thirds in the near future. Therefore, desalination, as a non-conventional water resource, has become one of the most interesting alternative water sources to partially face the freshwater scarcity in the near future. This research presents a parametric study to simulate for an optimal design of a transportable solar desalination system (SDS) in order to achieve maximum thermal performance. An experimental rig was especially designed and developed in this work in order to produce fresh water by using a new technology of solar distillation. The test rig was designed to study the effect of using concentrators in desalination field. The unit is used to investigate the influence of using concentrators on water production by distillation instead of using normal stills which use direct sun rays only.
A chain of experimental designations was introduced by the group, Firstly a new Solar Desalination System (SDS) was developed with specific dimensions for the parabolic reflector and the absorber. Three more modifications were conducted to the system. The influence of different environmental, design and operational parameters on the solar distillation unit productivity have been investigated in each case.
The study reveals that changing the solar intensity, reflector parabolic height and width, evaporation area, wind velocity, saline water depth, and absorbing tube shape changes the unit productivity.
The different rig designs have shown a great progress in water productivity especially with the last modification however, improvements were coupled with rising cost.

Prof. Ahmed F. Elsafty
Professor of Mechanical Engineering
Dean of CoET – Arab Academy for Science, Technology and Maritime Transport [El-Alamein Campus]
E-mail: Aelsafty@aast.edu
ASHRAE member ID: 8113802
ASHRAE Alexandria Chapter President 2021
Ahmed Elsafty is a Professor of Thermal Science at the Arab Academy for Science, Technology and Maritime Transport [AASTMT]. He is currently serving as the Dean of College of College of Engineering and Technology, El Alamein Campus – AASTMT. He holds a PhD Degree in Mechanical Engineering from Coventry University, UK.
From 2007 to 2008 he was the vice-dean for post graduate studies and research, then he was the Headof the Mechanical Engineering Department for 4 years at the Arab Academy for Science, Technology and Maritime Transport (AASTMT),
Elsafty was the Dean of the College of Engineering and Technology, and the Provost at the American University of the Middle East (AUM), Kuwait till 2017.
Elsafty has done extensive research work in the areas ofHVAC, Refrigeration, Water-desalination, Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD), Renewable Energy and Energy Utilization. He has published over 100 research papers in International Journals including the European Journal of Scientific Research and Conferences of repute, in addition to publishing a book in “Solar Air Conditioning Systems” which was published in 2012. He has successfully completed many research projects along with supervising more than 25 PhD. and MSc. Students, in addition to examining several PhD. and MSc. theses. Dr. Elsafty is also an editor anda reviewer of reputed journals and fund associations.
Elsafty has worked relentlessly for Industry-Academia interaction, especially in the field of Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG); he is a consultant for several companies and organization; furthermore, he has provided consultation for several Mega projects in Egypt since 2002 in the areas of Heating, Ventilation and Air-Conditioning (HVAC).
Dr. Elsafty is an active member of theAmerican Society of Heating, Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) since he was a PhD Student 1998. He was BOG and RP Chair Cairo Chapter till 2011, through which he delivered more than 30 HVAC&R workshops and seminars. He wasthe BOG and SA Chair at Pyramids Chapter since Sept. 2017 till 2021. Now he is ASHRAE Alexandria Chapter President and SAC. He attended several ASHRAE training and workshops including the ASHRAE Student Activities Centralized Training- Kansas City 2019.He managed to establish and recruit 6 Students Branches with nearly 100 students in addition to delivering seminars and workshops. Additionally, Dr. Elsafty ismember of American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) and Institute of Marine Engineering, Science and Technology (IMarEst), American Society for Engineering Education (ASEE), Association of Specialized and Professional Accreditors (ASPA)and International Association of Engineers (IAENG).


Title: A framework for collaborative industrial robot: Collision avoidance between industrial robot and uncertain dynamic objects

Abstract: Safe and collision free environment is a strict requirement for either robot-robot or human-robot collaboration in an industrial setup. This research is about safe path planning and collision avoidance for a six-axis industrial robot under uncertain intrusion of dynamic objects into the robotic workspace.  The aim of the solution is to reduce collision between a person and a collaborative robot in close proximity. The six-axis robotic arm uses a depth sensor on its end effector to establish visual sensing. Our platform demonstrates motion dependent visual estimation of the state through scene learning. We populate the scene with several fiducial markers representing environment features. The marker helps ascertain an absolute position in space to assist position calibration. An external moving object is introduced into the robotic workspace to emulate motion. Detection of the moving object invokes two-objective motion. The first objective is to move from one frame to another repetitively via a state estimation algorithm. The second objective is to track the moving object’s motion and avoid collision with the robot chassis.

Biography: Professor Md Raisuddin Khan received his B.Sc. degree in Mechanical Engineering from the former Engineering College, Rajshahi, Bangladesh[(currently known as Rajshahi University of Engineering and Technology (RUET)] in 1983. He received his M.Sc and Ph.D degrees in Mechanical Engineering from the Bangladesh University of Engineering and Technology (BUET) in 1988 and 1996 respectively. Currently he is aprofessor in the department of Mechatronics Engineering of the International Islamic University Malaysia (IIUM). He has been serving the Mechatronics Engineering Department of IIUM for more than twenty years. He has wide experience of designing and reviewing Mechatronics Engineering curriculum of different universities in Malaysia and overseas. He had been coordinator of the Autonomous Systems and Robotics Research Unit (ASRRU) of IIUM for more than five years. He also served as the member of the executive committee of IEEE Robotic Automation Society (RAS) Malaysia chapter for several terms. His research interest covers robotics, smart devices, vibration, and stress analyses of structures. He has so far published more than seventy papers in different international journals and conferences. He is life fellow of IEB and BSME, and Senior member of IEEE.


Abstract: World population is rapidly increasing and by year 2055 it is estimated to be 10 billion fromthe current 7 billion. This will result in growing demand for land, water and air transportation especially land vehicles. To power these transportation modes more fuels must be made available, which currently are mainly from fossil based, such as oil and natural gas or burning of coal in power plant for electricity generation for electric vehicles. This will further cause environmental destruction and pollution, contributing to global warming.Realisingthis fact many countries, Malaysia included, have been researching and successfully converting vegetable oil into biofuel such as bioethanol and biodiesel which are supposed to be environmentally friendly. This presentation describes the Malaysian Government
continuous effort to produce biofuel from Palm Oil to contribute to climate change mitigation and for economic reasons, despite facing challenges

Biography:Ir. Dr. Masjuki Hj. Hassan was conferred Emeritus Professorship on 20th October 2018 in conjunction with the 58th University of Malaya Convocation. He was a ‘2017-Merdeka Award winner in the Outstanding Scholastic Achievement Category’ and listed as ‘2017, 2018, 2019, 2020& 2021’ World Top 1% Highly Cited Researchers by Clarivate Analytics’. In addition, in November 2020& 2021 he was also listed as winner of Top 2% World Scientists by Stanford University, USA. He obtained his B.Sc.(Hons), Mech Eng from Leeds University, U.K. in 1977. This was followed by his M.Sc. in Tribology and Ph.D. in Mech Eng from the same university in 1978 and 1982 respectively. On completion of his PhD, he was appointed as a lecturer in 1983 at University of Malaya. He retired as a Senior Professor at Mechanical Engineering Department, University of Malaya on 12 April 2019 and on 01 July 2019 he joined International Islamic University Malaysia, Gombak Campus Kuala Lumpur as a Professor at the Mechanical Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering.He was a visiting scholar at Swansea University, Wales, UK in 1994 funded by Asian Development Bank. From 2000 to 2010, funded by JSPS, he established research collaborationon biodiesel from palm oil, with theDepartment of Mechanical Engineering, Kyoto University and Shiga Prefecture University, Japan.He was also a Visiting Professor at King Saud University (KSU), Riyadh, Saudi Arabia from 2017 to 2018. Administratively, he was appointed as Acting Dean, Deputy Dean, and Head of Mechanical Engineering Department on several occasions. He also sat on many committees at International, National (Ministries), and University levels. He served as Senate Member of University of Malaya on several occasions and was Secretary of Council of National Professors – Engineering, Technology and Built Environment Cluster until 31st March 2016. He was Chairman of Council of National Professors – University of Malaya Chapter from 1st June 2016 to 31st May 2018. He was the founding President of Malaysian Tribology Society (MYTRIBOS) from 2007 to 2017. He was one of the Vice – Presidents of International Tribology Council (ITC), UK (2017-2019) and was the Head of the Centre for Energy Sciences and Research Fellow at Centre of Malay Excellence Study, University of Malaya. He received many awards for his outstanding academic achievements and also member of many International and National professional organizations. He collaborated and is still collaborating with many international research organizations such as United State Agency for International Aid Agency (USAID), Asean-Australian Energy Conservation Program (AAECP), ASIAN Development Bank (ADB), ASIA-EU Grant, Japanese Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS) and AUN-Seed Net Program and Universities. He has successfully supervised many local and foreign Master and PhD students. He has published more than 500 journal articles, received more than 25,000 citations and h index of 90. He successfully supervised more than 67 MS and 41 PhD, comprising national and international candidates. His major contribution to the nation is through his expertise in biodiesel fuel production and automotive engineering, have been much sought for, to strengthen Malaysian Government Policy to blend higher percentages of biodiesel from palm oil with fossil diesel to be sold at petrol pumps throughout Malaysia. His other contribution to the nation is his involvement in more than 6 Technical Committees at SIRIM developing various Malaysian Standards for various Malaysian manufacturing industries. He reviewed and still being invited to review many journal articles by renown publishers. He serves as editorial board member of many international and national journals. He is a CEng (UK), MSAE(USA), PEng/Ir(Malaysia), FIMechE(UK) and Fellow of Academy Sciences Malaysia (FASc). On 01 January 2020 he was elected as Fellow of MYTRIBOSand on 6 July 21 he was conferred a prestigious MYTRIBOS Lifetime Achievement Award.